The manual Ford EPC USA contains information for all US Ford models of 1980 - 2009 model years. This program has VIN decoding and filtering that allows to only displays vehicle-specific parts information. Free searching panel by part number. The program supporting English language.

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Semiconductors in the 48V vehicle electrical system are used in particular for controlling electric motors and in the inverter for power distribution or for supplying the auxiliary units. They also provide the connection between the 48V and 12V electrical system levels by means of DC/DC converters. Corresponding components are sensors, microcontrollers, power, supply, communication and driver ICs.

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The question remains as to how the topic of “MaaS” will continue to develop. Here, even traditional car manufacturers are currently repositioning themselves and developing strategies on how to implement the transformation to a MaaS provider and thus define a completely new ecosystem. In these models the complete range of mobility is addressed and apart from the small urban vehicles for a few persons there is also a “shuttle POD” similar to EasyMile with up to 12 persons transport capacity, “people mover” similar to buses and “cargo mover” for the last mile service. Due to the greater weight compared to the small city car, higher power densities are required here. This could lead to the use of 48V not only for the traditional powertrain and auxiliary units, but also for steering, braking, driving stabilisation and possibly also for the wheel hub motor. Similar applications can be found in the truck, agricultural, construction machinery, forklift, special vehicle and aviation markets.


The program DDDL 7/0 application is the electronic tool in English language for worldwide about servicing Detroit Diesel’s 2007 DDEC VI equipped engines (S-60, MBE 4000, MBE 900, HDE). The program contains two controllers: the Motor Control Module and the Common Powertrain Controller.

For Ford (https://aprel-vologda.ru/hack/?patch=4725)'s become a tradition to produce products, which have a minimal impact on the environment. The combination of high economic and environmental performance throughout the life cycle from production to recycling the car, is one of the priorities.


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For this requirement, there are calculations that a 30 kW drive is sufficient to complete the urban and overland standard cycle with small city cars. In addition, a 48V BEV powertrain is approximately 25% cheaper than a HV 400V BEV powertrain in this operating cycle. Furthermore, there are already commercial vehicles with a payload of up to 1,000 kg based on a 48V BEV. Motorcycles and electric scooters as 48V BEV are also establishing themselves in the market, in some cases even with replaceable batteries.

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In recent years, the development of the 48V vehicle electrical system has focused primarily on P0 and P1 configurations in the powertrain of mild hybrid vehicles. The motivation for this was the cost advantage compared to purely electric or plug-in hybrid vehicles, the lower development effort and the immediate CO2 reduction potential for the vehicle fleet. For many manufacturers, the introduction of these mild hybrid vehicles was the quickest and most cost-effective solution to achieve current limit values for the vehicle fleet. For this reason, the 48V vehicle electrical system is often regarded as bridging technology until a sufficiently large HV (high-voltage) BEV (battery-powered electric vehicles) fleet has established itself worldwide to comply with the CO2 regulations. However, 48V technology offers far more potential than just bridging the gap to pure BEV vehicles.

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The block diagram (Figure 3) shows the basic layout of the semiconductors used to control a starter-alternator – the key component in the 48V vehicle electrical system. To power the microcontroller, the system voltage (48 V) is reduced to a level common for microcontrollers and other ICs. This is the essential function of the supply IC (safety system supply). It also performs additional tasks in the area of functional safety. The microcontroller enables both field-oriented control of the electric motor and control of the exciter winding in alternator operation. For this purpose, complex timer units are implemented in the microcontroller.

Against the background presented here and the application examples mentioned, it certainly makes sense to make further investments and system optimisations for the automotive use of a 48V vehicle electrical system voltage. Infineon is therefore pursuing a consistent strategy of investing not only significantly in high-voltage technologies for electric vehicles, but also in 48V technologies and products. To implement this, a broad, scalable portfolio of high-performance semiconductors is available.


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Low-loss MOSFETs are often used as power stage ICs in the 48V vehicle electrical system, which are usually controlled and monitored by dedicated 3-phase drivers and switched to a safe state in an emergency. Other important components, in addition to the motor driver ICs, are high-performance gate driver ICs which, in conjunction with MOSFETs, provide highly reliable battery switches or safety switches for 48 V/12V isolation. The 48V vehicle electrical system is electrically coupled to the 12V vehicle electrical system using a DC/DC converter.